What they opposed was women participating in the political sphere. ", "Reform activity that challenged either the subordination of women to men or the patriarchal limitation of women's status provoked an antifeminist response that included an intellectual and political campaign to halt progress toward women's rights and equality. Though men were not the only antifeminists, men experienced what some have called a "crisis of masculinity" in response to traditional gender roles being challenged. These organizations chastise feminists for presuming to universally speak for all women. Antifeminism (also spelled anti-feminism) is opposition to some or all forms of feminism.Earlier groups of antifeminists have opposed particular policy proposals for women's rights, such as women's suffrage in the late 19th century and early 20th century.  Other feminists label writers such as Christina Hoff Sommers, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Katie Roiphe and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese with this term because of their positions regarding oppression and lines of thought within feminism.. "’.  Later historians tended to dismiss antisuffragists as subscribing to the model of domestic idealism, that a woman's place is in the home. He argues that antifeminists consider the "traditional gender division of labor as natural and inevitable, perhaps also divinely sanctioned.  Opponents of women's entry into institutions of higher learning argued that education was too great a physical burden on women. Some argued that women were already overburdened. Find another word for anti-feminist. By 1972, the amendment was supported by both major parties and was immensely popular. These antifeminists contend that feminism demonizes men (misandry) and that women are not oppressed in 21st century Western countries. Men's studies scholar Michael Kimmel defines antifeminism as "the opposition to women's equality". A person who believes in equality between sexes, but does not believe that Feminist philosophy shares those ideals. To put it simply, anti-feminism is an opposition to the principles and an idea of feminism. More example sentences. The anti-feminist principle opposes feminism actively.  Both of these organizations pride themselves on rallying women who do not identify with feminist rhetoric together. In fact, leaders of the movement often encouraged other women to leave the home and participate in society. , Some current antifeminist practices can be traced back to the rise of the religious right in the late 1970s. They believe that the feminist movement has achieved its aims and now seeks higher status for women than for men via special rights and exemptions, such as female-only scholarships, affirmative action, and gender quotas. Thus, most women continue to practice feminism in terms of seeking equality and independence for women, yet avoid the label. Antisuffragists feared this would, in fact, hinder their influence with legislative authorities. This couldn’t be further from the truth.  The Hayden rider was included to keep special protections for women. The current of anti-feminism which developed in the newer religious orders …. Anti-feminist: as in bigot, misogynist. antifeminist - someone who does not believe in the social or economic or political equality of men and women bigot - a prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from his own male chauvinist, sexist - a man with a chauvinistic belief in the inferiority of women ", "Reasonable distinctions": an alternative to the ERA, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, "Stop fem-splaining: what 'Women Against Feminism' gets right", "Is feminism still relevant? Video shows what antifeminist means. , Authors Janet Saltzman Chafetz and Anthony Gary Dworkin, writing for Gender and Society, argue that the organizations most likely to formally organize against feminism are religious. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Anti-feminist rhetoric is a powerful gateway to violent white nationalism, and it is calculated to appeal to the demographic overwhelmingly responsible for … This undermines and belittles the true power and numbers behind the antisuffrage movement, which was primarily led by women themselves. , Founded in the U.S. by Phyllis Schlafly in 1972, Stop ERA, now known as "Eagle Forum", lobbied successfully to block the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment in the U.S. It was also Schlafly who forged links between Stop ERA and other conservative organizations, as well as single-issue groups against abortion, pornography, gun control, and unions. Slippery Words Quiz—Changing with the Times. The men who believed in this model cited religious models and natural law to emphasize women's need to return to the private sphere, in order to separate men and women to keep women from outwardly challenging men in public. , Moreover, other antifeminists oppose women's entry into the workforce, political office, or the voting process, as well as the lessening of male authority in families.  They have argued that feminism has resulted in changes to society's previous norms relating to sexuality, which they see as detrimental to traditional values or conservative religious beliefs. Another theory holds that women who feel vulnerable and dependent on men are likely to oppose anything that threatens that tenuous stability; under this view, while educated, independent career women may support feminism, housewives who lack such resources are more drawn to antifeminism. controversy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antifeminism&oldid=1001406668, Articles with limited geographic scope from May 2017, Pages in non-existent country centric categories, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, That social arrangements among men and women, "The two major waves of antifeminist activity coincide with the two waves of the women's rights movement: the campaign to secure female suffrage in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the feminist movement of the late twentieth century. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? How to pronounce anti-feminist (audio) , ˌan- tī- \ noun. “Anti-feminist.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anti-feminist. , Antifeminism has been identified as an underlying motivation in far-right extremism. He says that antifeminists oppose "women's entry into the public sphere, the re-organization of the private sphere, women's control of their bodies, and women's rights generally." Type 1) Egalitarian Anti-feminist. What changed my mind was learning that a lot of what I thought feminists believed was false – including the idea that gender oppression only affects women. , The Concerned Women of America (CWA) are also an antifeminist organization.  For example, the ubiquity of casual sex and the decline of marriage are mentioned as negative consequences of feminism. advocating antifeminism. Opposed to feminism.  Speaking on behalf of the League in an 1887 address to the Evangelical Alliance Conference, Samuel Dike described the ideal family as having "one man and one woman, united in wedlock, together with their children". By integrating Stop ERA with the thus-dubbed "new right", she was able to leverage a wider range of technological, organizational and political resources, successfully targeting pro-feminist candidates for defeat. … I thought feminists were only doing harm to themselves and others, and I proudly proclaimed that I was not a feminist. Antifeminists may oppose feminism for a variety of reasons, such as claiming its differentiate gender and promotes hostility toward men. Janet Chafetz identified in a study 32 first-wave antifeminist movements, including those in the 19th century and early 20th century movements. If you do a search for “anti-feminist book” on Amazon you only get 356 results (and MOST of the results are STILL pro-feminist books). The novel claimed that Communist leaders used their men and women to recruit a variety of minorities in the nation's capital, such as females, colored males, and homosexual males. In Sex in Education: or, a Fair Chance for the Girls (1873), Harvard professor Edward Clarke predicted that if women went to college, their brains would grow bigger and heavier, and their wombs would atrophy. Feminist definition, advocating social, political, legal, and economic rights for women equal to those of men. ", Antifeminist ideology rejects at least one of the following general principles of feminism:, Some antifeminists argue that feminism, despite claiming to advocate for equality, ignores rights issues unique to men. In 1950 and 1953, ERA was passed by the Senate with a provision known as "the Hayden rider", making it unacceptable to ERA supporters. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? addresses) on resources for battered women" and more. Through his efforts, the League garnered attention from pro-family advocates. This ploy failed once the journalists linked feminism to communism in their novel and ultimately reinforced antifeminism by implying that defending the "white, Christian, heterosexual, patriarchal family" was the only way to oppose communism. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). The definition of feminism on Merriam-Webster is “the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes.” Yet there is still an increasing belief that feminism is against men, and supports the supremacy of women. Anti-feminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms. antagonistic to feminism.  As a response to a pro-feminism speech by Australian Labor Senator Penny Wong, several women who identify as being humanist and antifeminist argued in an article for the Guardian that feminism is a discriminatory ideology and continues to portray women as victims.  In November 2014, Time magazine included "feminist" on its annual list of proposed banished words. anti-feminist noun. This self-proclaimed "anti-feminist" lawyer (Web site tag line: "Now is … There were two reasons antisuffragists opposed women participating in the political realm.  In the mid and late 20th century antifeminists often opposed the right to abortion and, in the United States, the Equal Rights Amendment. However, numerous studies have failed to correlate the aforementioned demographic factors with support for antifeminism, and only religiosity correlates positively with antifeminist alignment. Like feminism, this can describe a broad range of ideas, which we shall attempt to divide into 3 groupings. ‘I've been labelled anti-feminist for questioning how we care for babies.’. Accessed 24 Jan. 2021. The majority of them, however, argued that a woman's participation in the political realm would hinder her participation in social and civic duties. — Margaret W. Labarge. , Antifeminism might be motivated by the belief that feminist theories of patriarchy and disadvantages suffered by women in society are incorrect or exaggerated; that feminism as a movement encourages misandry and results in harm or oppression of men; or driven by general opposition towards women's rights. Noun. , In India, the Save Indian Family Foundation is an antifeminist organization opposed to a number of laws that they claim to have been used against men. It's younger and less established than the CWA, though the two organizations are often discussed in relation to each other. Antifeminismus (griech.  Other antifeminists opposed women's entry into the labor force, their right to join unions, to sit on juries, or to obtain birth control and control of their sexuality.. 2. … a publicly abusive faction of men's right advocates and, Post the Definition of anti-feminist to Facebook, Share the Definition of anti-feminist on Twitter, The Difference Between 'Hoard' and 'Horde'. Men's responses to increased feminism varied.  Antiabortion writings, as well as conservative commentary in the late 20th century criticized the selfishness and self-centeredness of the feminist movement regarding abortions. Anti-Feminists prefer to follow a more appropriate Biblical representative of women modeled in scripture (Christianity).Many of the Bible verses anti-feminists follow are Ephesians 5:22, … Anti-feminists understand that feminism is a danger to society. If they won the right to vote, women would consequently have to align with a particular party, which would destroy their ability to be politically neutral. anti-feminism \ ˌan- tē- ˈfe- mə- ˌni- zəm. The IWF claims to be "the voice of reasonable women with important ideas who embrace common sense over divisive ideology". Synonyms for anti-feminist include misogynist, woman-hater, MCP, sexist, chauvinist, male chauvinist, misanthrope, womanhater, male supremacist and male chauvinist pig. One theory is that it was a clash between upper-class liberal voters and the older, more conservative lower-class rural voters who often serve as the center for right-wing movements; in other words, this theory identifies particular social classes as more inherently friendly to antifeminism.  The second theory Himmelstein identifies states that the female antifeminists who lead the movement are largely married, low education, and low personal income women who embody the "insecure housewife scenario" and seek to perpetuate their own situation in which women depend on men for fiscal support.  There are, in fact, similarities between income between activists on both sides of the ERA debate.  This movement was intended to halt the rising divorce rate and reinforce traditional family values. The vast popularity of the book caused such a buzz that the Civil Service Commission had to create a "publicity campaign to improve the image of federal employees" in hopes to save their federal employees from losing their jobs. , In the 19th century, one of the major focal points of antifeminism was opposition to women's suffrage, which began as a grassroots movement in 1848 and spanned for 72 years. Learn a new word every day. , British newspaper The Guardian and the website Jezebel have also reported on an increasing number of women and female celebrities rejecting feminism and instead subscribing to humanism. Four women reply (and they're not from the left)", "The many misguided reasons famous ladies say 'I'm Not a Feminist, "#WomenAgainstFeminism goes viral as people explain why they don't need feminism anymore", "Time Magazine apologizes for including 'feminist' in 2015 word banishment poll", The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, "Alt-right, alt-left, antifa: a glossary of extremist language", "Alt-right in Montreal: The war against women", "How the alt-right's sexism lures men into white supremacy", "To Learn About the Far Right, Start With the 'Manosphere, "Resisting the feminist threat: antifeminist politics in post-Sandinista Nicaragua", "Disabusing the Definition of Domestic Violence: How Women Batter Men and the Role of the Feminist State", Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting), Boys are stupid, throw rocks at them! Canadian sociologists Melissa Blais and Francis Dupuis-Déri write that antifeminist thought has primarily taken the form of masculinism, in which "men are in crisis because of the feminization of society". In the late 19th century and early 20th century antifeminists opposed particular policy proposals for women's rights, such as the right to vote, educational opportunities, property rights, and access to birth control . The anti-feminist groups attacking the Supreme Court’s Roe v. Wade decision : Roe v. Wade was a decision that allowed pregnant women to decide for … Anti feminist definition - Der absolute Favorit der Redaktion. In both periods, those holding a traditional view of women's place in the home and family tried to advance their cause by joining with other conservative groups to forestall efforts to extend women's rights. , The "women's movement" began in 1848, most famously articulated by Elizabeth Cady Stanton demanding voting rights, joined by Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony and others who also pushed for other rights such as education, job freedom, marital and property rights, and the right to choose when or whether to become a mother. Val Burris, meanwhile, says that high-income men opposed the amendment because they would gain the least with it being passed; that those men had the most to lose, since the ratification of the ERA would mean more competition for their jobs and possibly a lowered self-esteem. , Jerome Himmelstein identified two main theories about the appeal of antifeminism and its role in opposition to the ERA. After initially receiving the majority of votes (51%), a Time editor apologized for including the word in the poll and removed it from the results. What made you want to look up anti-feminist? See more.  Due to the stigma against feminism, some activists, such as those involved with Girls Rock, may take the principles of feminism as a foundation of thought and teach girls and women independence and self-reliance without explicitly labeling it with the stigmatized brand of feminism. Himmelstein identifies two prevailing theories that seek to explain the origins of antifeminism: the first theory, proposed by Himmelstein, is that conservative opposition in the abortion and Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) debates has created a climate of hostility toward the entire feminist movement. The advocacy of women's rights on the basis of the equality of the sexes. " Similar strands of thought are found in the incel subculture, which centers around misogynist fantasies about punishing women for not having sex with them. Abortion remains one of the most controversial topics in the United States. … a publicly abusive faction of men's right … How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. This is because women's movements may demand access to male-dominated positions within the religious sector, like the clergy, and women's movements threaten male-oriented values of some religions. So a non-feminist person is no less anti-feminist simply for opposing feminism passively, than an anti-feminist is for opposing it actively. However, it was defeated in Congress when it failed to get the vote of thirty-eight legislatures by 1982. Some women, like those in the Women's National Anti-Suffrage League, campaigned against women's suffrage. This is good because the active mode is also politically efficient in its season.  They argue that a change of women's roles is a destructive force that endangers the family, or is contrary to religious morals. , Canadian sociologists Melissa Blais and Francis Dupuis-Déri write that antifeminist thought has primarily taken the form of masculinism, in which "men are in crisis because of the feminization of society". It was founded to take on the "old feminist establishment". 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'?  These countermovements were in response to some women's growing demands, which were perceived as threatening to the standard way of life.  Their methods include actions such as "insults proffered in emails or on the telephone, systematic denigration of feminism in the media, Internet disclosure of confidential information (e.g.  Because of the support of antifeminism from conservatives and the constant "conservative reactions to liberal social politics", such as the New Deal attacks, the attack on the ERA has been called a "right-wing backlash".  This movement built the foundation for many pro-family arguments in contemporary antifeminism. , Furthermore, antifeminists view feminism as a denial of innate psychological sex differences, and an attempt to reprogram people against their biological tendencies.  Samuel Dike was one of the founders of the League, and was considered an early expert on divorce. A new section to the ERA was added, stating: "The provisions of this article shall not be construed to impair any rights, benefits, or exemptions now or hereafter conferred by law upon persons of the female sex." Like other conservative women's groups, they oppose abortion and same-sex marriage and make appeals for maternalism and biological differences between women and men. Antiabortion views helped further several right-wing movements, including explicit antifeminism, and helped right-wing politicians rise to power. Himmelstein, however, says both views are at least partially wrong, arguing that the primary dividing line between feminists and antifeminists is cultural rather than stemming from differences in economic and social status. For example, the perpetrators of the Christchurch massacre and the El Paso shooting appear to have been motivated by the conspiracy theory that white people are being replaced by non-whites largely as a result of feminist stances in Western societies.  According to Helen Lewis, the far-right ideology considers it vital to control female reproduction and sexuality: "Misogyny is used predominantly as the first outreach mechanism", where "You were owed something, or your life should have been X, but because of the ridiculous things feminists are doing, you can’t access them. As it turned out, the most indicative factors when predicting ERA position, especially among women, were race, marital status, age, and education.  ERA opposition was much higher among white, married, older, and less educated citizens. 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